13
Thu, Jun
4 New Articles

Security Best Practices, Part 1

Security - Other
Typography
  • Smaller Small Medium Big Bigger
  • Default Helvetica Segoe Georgia Times

This article is an excerpt from IBM Mainframe Security: Beyond the Basics  (MC Press, 2013).

Men are only as good as their technical development allows them to be.

—George Orwell

 

Mainframe security has been around for quite some time. Over the years, installations have realized that some practices, if implemented, will pay security dividends in the long run. In fact, it can be argued that not establishing best practices and not following them is detrimental to overall security and often results in increased security administration costs.

 

With this in mind, this article presents some of the best practices for IBM mainframe security.

 

 

Note: The best practices discussed in this chapter should not be treated in isolation from the rest of this book. Many of the ideas and suggestions mentioned elsewhere in this book are also industry best practices.

Implement Role-Based Security

In simple terms, role-based security is one where you grant access to groups instead of to individuals. Generally, these groups represent specific job functions at the company.

 

The employees' access rights are determined not by their user IDs being in the access lists, but by virtue of their being members of certain groups. If a group is in the access list, then the employee automatically will have access because he or she is a member of the group, as shown in Figure 29.1.

 

To administer security, you simply add and remove people from groups. The only time you have to modify the access list is when a new group is formed or when one is no longer needed.

112513Dattani5150 Fig29-01

Figure 29.1: In role-based security, groups rather than individuals are in access lists.

 

There are several reasons why this model is appealing.

 

First, you will save on security administration costs. Under this scheme, groups, not individuals, will be in access lists. As people enter and leave various functional groups in your organization, you will not have to add and remove individuals from access lists.

 

Second, auditing will be easier. User IDs will be grouped according to their roles in the company, and the entire group, representing a role, will be granted access. To find out all users who have access to payroll data, for example, you simply list the group called "PAYROLL".

 

Last, it will help you in your user ID cloning efforts. Quite often, a request comes in to the security department such as "give the new employee Wayne the same access as that of Patricia." If you have implemented role-based security, all you have to do is list Patricia's user ID and find out what groups she is connected to. Then, you add Wayne to all these groups.

 

This simple cloning exercise would take much longer if you did not have role-based security. You would have to find out all profiles where Patricia has access and also the level of that access (such as read or update). There might be dozens, or even hundreds, of these profiles. You would then have to grant Wayne exactly the same level of access as Patricia to all these profiles.

 

Under role-based security, of course, a person is allowed to have more than one role. If that is the case, then that person simply belongs to more than one group.

 

So, under role-based security, are there any circumstances when you want to allow individual-level access? Yes, there are. Some access can rightly be granted at the individual level. This will happen when you have sensitive or critical data and you want to restrict it to just one or two individuals. In this case, granting access to entire groups would compromise the security of your important data.

 

When you adopt role-based security, one thing to keep in mind is group memberships. Since access is granted wholesale at the group level, it is assumed users are in the right groups. Otherwise, you are in a situation where the wrong people are getting access via incorrect group memberships.

Periodically De-Clutter Your Security Database

Database clutter is not very different from the physical clutter we collect in our basements and garages. It is an eyesore, gets in the way whenever we want to find something, and does not serve any useful function.

 

Security database clutter is bound to happen. Groups and user IDs become obsolete. Applications retire, requiring extensive cleanup of obsolete profiles. RACF groups become empty and might not be needed anymore. Employees transfer from one department to another. Departments get reorganized, and entire company divisions are bought and sold, not to mention mergers between companies.

 

You should regularly evaluate and make sure your security database is clutter-free. Otherwise, you will soon find that a lot of clutter has accumulated and is now unmanageable.

 

Inactive user IDs should be reviewed and deleted where appropriate. The DSMON Selected User Attribute report shows all user IDs that have been revoked. For more information about this report, refer to chapter 3, "The Data Security Monitor (DSMON)."

Handle Employee Transfers and Terminations as They Occur

In any organization, people come and go. In some organizations, however, when people leave the company, their user IDs remain.

 

The security database cleanup associated with users being terminated or transferring to new job functions is often neglected. This neglect might go unnoticed for a long time.

 

There should be a process in place whereby the security department gets notified of all employee transfers and terminations.

 

If an employee moves on to a new job function, he or she will, over time, request the new access necessary to do the new job function. However, if you do not have a process in place to clean up his or her old access, then that old access will still remain intact.

 

This situation, if allowed to persist, will not only create the security database clutter mentioned above but also cause security audit concerns, as the person does not need, and should not have, the old access any more. The problem is even worse in the case where the person held special security privileges in the old job.

 

In the case of employee terminations, make sure all access, and the user ID, is removed from the system. The concern here is that if the user ID inadvertently gets activated, then the access rights of that user ID are at risk of misuse.

 

Then there is the issue of what to do with the data sets owned by the person who has transferred or who has been terminated. These data sets cannot simply be deleted, as they might contain many years of work. In such cases, the best thing to do is to let the person's manager decide whether to reassign responsibility for the data or to delete it.

 

While cleanup activities such as these will not win you medals, or even recognition, they are a necessary evil. In the long run, it is in your best interest to keep things clean. Management should recognize this extra activity not as overhead, but as a job function within the security department.

Identify Your Important Data

There are two categories of data that can be designated as important:

  • Critical operating system data (and its major components, such as DB2 and CICS)
  • Your production data

 

While the first category is more or less standard across all companies and across all industries, the second category is installation-specific and therefore hard to identify. For example, for an automotive company, data sets containing auto part numbers and their specifications would be termed extremely critical to the business. There might well be legal reasons to guard this data from unauthorized access.

 

There are many benefits to identifying your important data:

  • You can implement better security controls for this data.
  • You can plan your disaster recovery exercises to include important data.
  • The data owners and custodians will be better able to make access-approval decisions.
  • During access reviews, the owners will be able to make intelligent decisions.
  • Auditors will know where to focus their audit efforts.
  • Security administrators will be able to implement tighter controls and loggings for this data.

 

Dinesh Dattani

Dinesh D. Dattani is a mainframe security consultant and president of Triple-D Mainframe Services, Ltd., in Toronto, Canada. He has more than 30 years of mainframe security experience at a number of companies in North America. His consulting career spans diverse industries and sectors, including banking, telecom, automotive, insurance, energy, government, and service providers.

Dinesh has also provided hands-on and classroom training on mainframe security to a number of clients. Before starting his own company, he was a system programmer working on mainframe operating systems. This base gave him an invaluable understanding of the technical aspects of mainframe security.

Dinesh has authored nearly 60 articles on mainframe security and is the author of the IBM white paper Best Practices for System z Security: Mainframe Security Matters: Thinking Outside the Box (2006). He also blogs about mainframe security topics at mainframesecuritymatters.wordpress.com. Dinesh holds a bachelor of mathematics degree with a major in computer science from the University of Waterloo, Canada.


MC Press books written by Dinesh Dattani available now on the MC Press Bookstore.

IBM Mainframe Security IBM Mainframe Security
Boost your understanding of security and audit issues, best practices, and compliance with this experience-based guide.
List Price $59.95

Now On Sale

BLOG COMMENTS POWERED BY DISQUS

LATEST COMMENTS

Support MC Press Online

$0.00 Raised:
$

Book Reviews

Resource Center

  • SB Profound WC 5536 Have you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application. You can find Part 1 here. In Part 2 of our free Node.js Webinar Series, Brian May teaches you the different tooling options available for writing code, debugging, and using Git for version control. Brian will briefly discuss the different tools available, and demonstrate his preferred setup for Node development on IBM i or any platform. Attend this webinar to learn:

  • SB Profound WP 5539More than ever, there is a demand for IT to deliver innovation. Your IBM i has been an essential part of your business operations for years. However, your organization may struggle to maintain the current system and implement new projects. The thousands of customers we've worked with and surveyed state that expectations regarding the digital footprint and vision of the company are not aligned with the current IT environment.

  • SB HelpSystems ROBOT Generic IBM announced the E1080 servers using the latest Power10 processor in September 2021. The most powerful processor from IBM to date, Power10 is designed to handle the demands of doing business in today’s high-tech atmosphere, including running cloud applications, supporting big data, and managing AI workloads. But what does Power10 mean for your data center? In this recorded webinar, IBMers Dan Sundt and Dylan Boday join IBM Power Champion Tom Huntington for a discussion on why Power10 technology is the right strategic investment if you run IBM i, AIX, or Linux. In this action-packed hour, Tom will share trends from the IBM i and AIX user communities while Dan and Dylan dive into the tech specs for key hardware, including:

  • Magic MarkTRY the one package that solves all your document design and printing challenges on all your platforms. Produce bar code labels, electronic forms, ad hoc reports, and RFID tags – without programming! MarkMagic is the only document design and print solution that combines report writing, WYSIWYG label and forms design, and conditional printing in one integrated product. Make sure your data survives when catastrophe hits. Request your trial now!  Request Now.

  • SB HelpSystems ROBOT GenericForms of ransomware has been around for over 30 years, and with more and more organizations suffering attacks each year, it continues to endure. What has made ransomware such a durable threat and what is the best way to combat it? In order to prevent ransomware, organizations must first understand how it works.

  • SB HelpSystems ROBOT GenericIT security is a top priority for businesses around the world, but most IBM i pros don’t know where to begin—and most cybersecurity experts don’t know IBM i. In this session, Robin Tatam explores the business impact of lax IBM i security, the top vulnerabilities putting IBM i at risk, and the steps you can take to protect your organization. If you’re looking to avoid unexpected downtime or corrupted data, you don’t want to miss this session.

  • SB HelpSystems ROBOT GenericCan you trust all of your users all of the time? A typical end user receives 16 malicious emails each month, but only 17 percent of these phishing campaigns are reported to IT. Once an attack is underway, most organizations won’t discover the breach until six months later. A staggering amount of damage can occur in that time. Despite these risks, 93 percent of organizations are leaving their IBM i systems vulnerable to cybercrime. In this on-demand webinar, IBM i security experts Robin Tatam and Sandi Moore will reveal:

  • FORTRA Disaster protection is vital to every business. Yet, it often consists of patched together procedures that are prone to error. From automatic backups to data encryption to media management, Robot automates the routine (yet often complex) tasks of iSeries backup and recovery, saving you time and money and making the process safer and more reliable. Automate your backups with the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution. Key features include:

  • FORTRAManaging messages on your IBM i can be more than a full-time job if you have to do it manually. Messages need a response and resources must be monitored—often over multiple systems and across platforms. How can you be sure you won’t miss important system events? Automate your message center with the Robot Message Management Solution. Key features include:

  • FORTRAThe thought of printing, distributing, and storing iSeries reports manually may reduce you to tears. Paper and labor costs associated with report generation can spiral out of control. Mountains of paper threaten to swamp your files. Robot automates report bursting, distribution, bundling, and archiving, and offers secure, selective online report viewing. Manage your reports with the Robot Report Management Solution. Key features include:

  • FORTRAFor over 30 years, Robot has been a leader in systems management for IBM i. With batch job creation and scheduling at its core, the Robot Job Scheduling Solution reduces the opportunity for human error and helps you maintain service levels, automating even the biggest, most complex runbooks. Manage your job schedule with the Robot Job Scheduling Solution. Key features include:

  • LANSA Business users want new applications now. Market and regulatory pressures require faster application updates and delivery into production. Your IBM i developers may be approaching retirement, and you see no sure way to fill their positions with experienced developers. In addition, you may be caught between maintaining your existing applications and the uncertainty of moving to something new.

  • LANSAWhen it comes to creating your business applications, there are hundreds of coding platforms and programming languages to choose from. These options range from very complex traditional programming languages to Low-Code platforms where sometimes no traditional coding experience is needed. Download our whitepaper, The Power of Writing Code in a Low-Code Solution, and:

  • LANSASupply Chain is becoming increasingly complex and unpredictable. From raw materials for manufacturing to food supply chains, the journey from source to production to delivery to consumers is marred with inefficiencies, manual processes, shortages, recalls, counterfeits, and scandals. In this webinar, we discuss how:

  • The MC Resource Centers bring you the widest selection of white papers, trial software, and on-demand webcasts for you to choose from. >> Review the list of White Papers, Trial Software or On-Demand Webcast at the MC Press Resource Center. >> Add the items to yru Cart and complet he checkout process and submit

  • Profound Logic Have you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application.

  • SB Profound WC 5536Join us for this hour-long webcast that will explore:

  • Fortra IT managers hoping to find new IBM i talent are discovering that the pool of experienced RPG programmers and operators or administrators with intimate knowledge of the operating system and the applications that run on it is small. This begs the question: How will you manage the platform that supports such a big part of your business? This guide offers strategies and software suggestions to help you plan IT staffing and resources and smooth the transition after your AS/400 talent retires. Read on to learn: