Wed, Jun
4 New Articles

Electronic Data Interchange via the Internet

Commerce - Other
  • Smaller Small Medium Big Bigger
  • Default Helvetica Segoe Georgia Times
If your company does business with any of the big retailers like Wal-Mart, you're probably already familiar with Electronic Data Interchange (EDI). EDI is basically a set of standards for transmitting different documents (purchase orders, invoices, etc.) between companies. A company with which you exchange EDI documents is referred to as a trading partner. EDI documents are usually generated through the use of a translator package, which takes data from another source--an ERP application, for example--and converts it into the format required for the specific document. Until recently, this data would be sent to the trading partner through the use of a value-added network (VAN). VANs act as the middleman in exchanging documents with your trading partners. Figure 1 gives you an idea of the flow of documents with a standard EDI system.


Figure 1: This chart explains how EDI documents are sent and received.

In this example, data from your ERP application is fed to the EDI translator application, which converts the data into an acceptable EDI document. This document is then sent through the use of a communications package to a third-party VAN, which sends the data to the trading partner. If the trading partner uses a different VAN than the VAN you use, the data is sent through an interconnect to the trading partner's VAN. In some cases, multiple interconnects may be required. The trading partner then retrieves the document from their VAN and sends out an acknowledgement that the document was received, which goes through the same process to make its way back to you. Some trading partners eliminate the need for the VAN by allowing other trading partners to communicate with them directly. While this does eliminate the need for a VAN, the trading partner must then have the infrastructure in place to support this. Figure 2 shows how documents flow in this scenario.

Figure 2: This flow represents a direct connection to a trading partner.

While this scenario eliminates the middleman, it also can require special hardware and software for each trading partner you communicate with.

Getting out of the VAN

You usually communicate with your VAN through a dial-up connection and pay the VAN for every character sent and received. In the case of interconnects, mentioned earlier, additional costs can be incurred. These costs can add up. When you consider that today most companies have some connection to the Internet--be it T1, DSL, or even dial-up--the idea of paying for a third-party network to transmit data doesn't seem to make much sense. That's where EDI INT comes in. EDI INT is the means by which EDI documents can be encrypted and sent through the public Internet, effectively eliminating the VAN (and the VAN charges). With EDI INT, you replace the communications package portion of the example above with a package that is compliant with the EDI INT standards as defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The IETF's EDI INT Web site is a great resource for information on the EDI INT standards. Figure 3 shows the flow of documents using EDI INT.


Figure 3: This flow represents the path of EDI documents when using EDI INT.

But cost savings aren't the only reason to switch. Many big retailers, including Wal-Mart and Lowe's, are mandating their trading partners to make the move to EDI INT. Your first thought might be "Why not just email the EDI documents to the trading partner?" After all, SMTP email is an existing means for sending and receiving data. The problem is security. Many times EDI documents contain data that is confidential between trading partners, such as pricing information, which could be compromised if sent through the Internet without some level of encryption. There are currently two specifications that are approved for EDI INT:

Applicability Statement 1 (AS1) uses Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) as the means by which EDI documents are transmitted and received.

Applicability Statement 2 (AS2) is an extension of the AS1 standards that also allows Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to be used as a means of transportation for data. It's not a replacement for AS1 but more an extension of the AS1 standard.

By using either of these specifications, it's possible to exchange data other than EDI documents (XML files, etc.) with a trading partner. AS1 data is secured through the use of Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME). S/MIME was originally developed by RSA Data Security, Inc. and is based on the PKCS #7 data format for messages and the X.509v3 format for certificates. PKCS #7, in turn, is based on the ASN.1 DER format for data. AS2 data secured through the use of Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) Secure Socket Layer (SSL). You may question why you would want to send the data via HTTP protocol in place of SMTP. Consider the fact that when you send an SMTP email message, the data is transferred from your PC, to a mail server, to another mail server, and then to a final destination. In some cases, there can be even more forwarding of the data to get it to the final recipient. This is one drawback of using SMTP to transmit EDI data when you consider that EDI documents are often time-sensitive and need to arrive as soon as possible. If any portion of this loop is down, the data won't reach its final destination in a timely fashion. Figure 4 shows what I'm talking about.


Figure 4: This flow represents the path of a document through SMTP.

The HTTP option available as part of the AS2 specification avoids this drawback because the data is sent directly from an AS2 "Web Server" to another. This means that as long as both AS2 servers are up, the data will get through. Figure 5 shows how much simpler the path of the document is through HTTP.


Figure 5: The flow of a document via HTTP is much simpler.

There can still be an issue, however, if one of the AS2 servers is down. In that case, you must have some sort of backup plan in place to handle transferring the data. This usually involves the use of a VAN. In most cases, EDI INT packages will require you to export your EDI documents to a flat file from your EDI translator package. This flat file is then read into the EDI INT package and sent to the required trading partner through either SMTP or HTTP, depending on whether you are using AS1 or AS2.

Getting from EDI to EDI INT

Cost savings alone can make EDI INT very attractive. When you add in the possibility of a mandate from a major customer, it can become a necessity. So at this point, you're probably wondering what it takes to get EDI INT in place. Depending on the requirements of your trading partner, you may be able to simply have your VAN prepare and send the EDI document through EDI INT. Using this scenario, of course, does not eliminate the VAN charges. On the other hand, this method is probably the simplest to accomplish and can be useful if you are unable to comply with a trading partner mandate within the allotted time. The other option is to install an EDI INT package. The number of software vendors with EDI INT offerings is increasing daily. If you go this route, you'll want to be sure that you select a package that has been certified by The Drummond Group, which is responsible for the testing and certification of all EDI INT software. Figure 6 contains a list of the packages currently certified as AS2-compliant by the Drummond Group.

Software Product Name and Version
Software Vendor
TDAccess/TDPeer/TDNgine/TDBrowser using EDIINT engine, Version 3.0
Cleo LexiCom, Version 2.0
Compaq ASx Transport Service (CATS), Version 3
Cyclone Interchange/Activator, Version 4.2
Cyclone Interchange/Activator, Version 4.1.3
Enterprise System, Version 7.5
TradeLinks, Version 2.5
IPNet eBizness Transact, Version 3.6
IPNet BizManager, Version 2
iSoft Peer-to-Peer Agent, Version 3.1
Sterling Integrator, Version 2.0
Gentran Integration Suite, Version 2.0
Sterling Information Broker, Version 3.5
TIBCO BusinessConnect AS2 Transport, Version 1.0.0
BusinessWare B2Bi Server, Version 1.4
WebMethods Integration Platform, Version 4.6

Figure 5: Software packages currently certified per the AS2 specification.

The costs of any of these packages can depend greatly on the number of trading partners with which you intend to use the package, ranging anywhere from a few hundred to tens of thousands of dollars. It's also important to remember that you can only switch to EDI INT with trading partners who can also support EDI INT. In some cases, software vendors will offer the software to you at "no charge" for use with a specific trading partner. This is the case with Wal-Mart's announcement in mid-September 2002 that they would be mandating their trading partners to move to an AS2-compliant EDI INT solution. This announcement sent many of its trading partners and many EDI INT software vendors scrambling to figure out which way they would go. Many of the software vendors mentioned earlier will allow you to use their solution for AS2 connections to Wal-Mart "at no charge." Any additional trading partners, however, must be paid for separately. As with most software, annual maintenance fees will add to the costs of implementing any EDI INT solution. In most cases, however, the return on investment can be significant once the VAN charges have been eliminated.

Not IF but WHEN

The real question, when it comes to EDI INT may not be if you should consider it, but is more likely to be when a major customer will require that you communicate via EDI INT. In the not too distant future, VANs will become a thing of the past, in turn reducing overhead costs for everyone in the supply chain.

Mike Faust is the MIS manager for The Lehigh Group in Macungie, Pennsylvania, and is the author of The iSeries and AS/400 Programmer's Guide to Cool Things. Mike has over 15 years' of programming and systems experience. You can contact Mike at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Mike Faust

Mike Faust is a senior consultant/analyst for Retail Technologies Corporation in Orlando, Florida. Mike is also the author of the books Active Server Pages Primer, The iSeries and AS/400 Programmer's Guide to Cool Things, JavaScript for the Business Developer, and SQL Built-in Functions and Stored Procedures. You can contact Mike at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

MC Press books written by Mike Faust available now on the MC Press Bookstore.

Active Server Pages Primer Active Server Pages Primer
Learn how to make the most of ASP while creating a fully functional ASP "shopping cart" application.
List Price $79.00

Now On Sale

JavaScript for the Business Developer JavaScript for the Business Developer
Learn how JavaScript can help you create dynamic business applications with Web browser interfaces.
List Price $44.95

Now On Sale

SQL Built-in Functions and Stored Procedures SQL Built-in Functions and Stored Procedures
Unleash the full power of SQL with these highly useful tools.
List Price $49.95

Now On Sale



Support MC Press Online

$0.00 Raised:

Book Reviews

Resource Center

  • SB Profound WC 5536 Have you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application. You can find Part 1 here. In Part 2 of our free Node.js Webinar Series, Brian May teaches you the different tooling options available for writing code, debugging, and using Git for version control. Brian will briefly discuss the different tools available, and demonstrate his preferred setup for Node development on IBM i or any platform. Attend this webinar to learn:

  • SB Profound WP 5539More than ever, there is a demand for IT to deliver innovation. Your IBM i has been an essential part of your business operations for years. However, your organization may struggle to maintain the current system and implement new projects. The thousands of customers we've worked with and surveyed state that expectations regarding the digital footprint and vision of the company are not aligned with the current IT environment.

  • SB HelpSystems ROBOT Generic IBM announced the E1080 servers using the latest Power10 processor in September 2021. The most powerful processor from IBM to date, Power10 is designed to handle the demands of doing business in today’s high-tech atmosphere, including running cloud applications, supporting big data, and managing AI workloads. But what does Power10 mean for your data center? In this recorded webinar, IBMers Dan Sundt and Dylan Boday join IBM Power Champion Tom Huntington for a discussion on why Power10 technology is the right strategic investment if you run IBM i, AIX, or Linux. In this action-packed hour, Tom will share trends from the IBM i and AIX user communities while Dan and Dylan dive into the tech specs for key hardware, including:

  • Magic MarkTRY the one package that solves all your document design and printing challenges on all your platforms. Produce bar code labels, electronic forms, ad hoc reports, and RFID tags – without programming! MarkMagic is the only document design and print solution that combines report writing, WYSIWYG label and forms design, and conditional printing in one integrated product. Make sure your data survives when catastrophe hits. Request your trial now!  Request Now.

  • SB HelpSystems ROBOT GenericForms of ransomware has been around for over 30 years, and with more and more organizations suffering attacks each year, it continues to endure. What has made ransomware such a durable threat and what is the best way to combat it? In order to prevent ransomware, organizations must first understand how it works.

  • SB HelpSystems ROBOT GenericIT security is a top priority for businesses around the world, but most IBM i pros don’t know where to begin—and most cybersecurity experts don’t know IBM i. In this session, Robin Tatam explores the business impact of lax IBM i security, the top vulnerabilities putting IBM i at risk, and the steps you can take to protect your organization. If you’re looking to avoid unexpected downtime or corrupted data, you don’t want to miss this session.

  • SB HelpSystems ROBOT GenericCan you trust all of your users all of the time? A typical end user receives 16 malicious emails each month, but only 17 percent of these phishing campaigns are reported to IT. Once an attack is underway, most organizations won’t discover the breach until six months later. A staggering amount of damage can occur in that time. Despite these risks, 93 percent of organizations are leaving their IBM i systems vulnerable to cybercrime. In this on-demand webinar, IBM i security experts Robin Tatam and Sandi Moore will reveal:

  • FORTRA Disaster protection is vital to every business. Yet, it often consists of patched together procedures that are prone to error. From automatic backups to data encryption to media management, Robot automates the routine (yet often complex) tasks of iSeries backup and recovery, saving you time and money and making the process safer and more reliable. Automate your backups with the Robot Backup and Recovery Solution. Key features include:

  • FORTRAManaging messages on your IBM i can be more than a full-time job if you have to do it manually. Messages need a response and resources must be monitored—often over multiple systems and across platforms. How can you be sure you won’t miss important system events? Automate your message center with the Robot Message Management Solution. Key features include:

  • FORTRAThe thought of printing, distributing, and storing iSeries reports manually may reduce you to tears. Paper and labor costs associated with report generation can spiral out of control. Mountains of paper threaten to swamp your files. Robot automates report bursting, distribution, bundling, and archiving, and offers secure, selective online report viewing. Manage your reports with the Robot Report Management Solution. Key features include:

  • FORTRAFor over 30 years, Robot has been a leader in systems management for IBM i. With batch job creation and scheduling at its core, the Robot Job Scheduling Solution reduces the opportunity for human error and helps you maintain service levels, automating even the biggest, most complex runbooks. Manage your job schedule with the Robot Job Scheduling Solution. Key features include:

  • LANSA Business users want new applications now. Market and regulatory pressures require faster application updates and delivery into production. Your IBM i developers may be approaching retirement, and you see no sure way to fill their positions with experienced developers. In addition, you may be caught between maintaining your existing applications and the uncertainty of moving to something new.

  • LANSAWhen it comes to creating your business applications, there are hundreds of coding platforms and programming languages to choose from. These options range from very complex traditional programming languages to Low-Code platforms where sometimes no traditional coding experience is needed. Download our whitepaper, The Power of Writing Code in a Low-Code Solution, and:

  • LANSASupply Chain is becoming increasingly complex and unpredictable. From raw materials for manufacturing to food supply chains, the journey from source to production to delivery to consumers is marred with inefficiencies, manual processes, shortages, recalls, counterfeits, and scandals. In this webinar, we discuss how:

  • The MC Resource Centers bring you the widest selection of white papers, trial software, and on-demand webcasts for you to choose from. >> Review the list of White Papers, Trial Software or On-Demand Webcast at the MC Press Resource Center. >> Add the items to yru Cart and complet he checkout process and submit

  • Profound Logic Have you been wondering about Node.js? Our free Node.js Webinar Series takes you from total beginner to creating a fully-functional IBM i Node.js business application.

  • SB Profound WC 5536Join us for this hour-long webcast that will explore:

  • Fortra IT managers hoping to find new IBM i talent are discovering that the pool of experienced RPG programmers and operators or administrators with intimate knowledge of the operating system and the applications that run on it is small. This begs the question: How will you manage the platform that supports such a big part of your business? This guide offers strategies and software suggestions to help you plan IT staffing and resources and smooth the transition after your AS/400 talent retires. Read on to learn: